Samples were also examined by Incognita-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy by means of a Surface Schermo instrument supplied by Assing
The XRF spectra were obtained with the following experimental conditions: Mo tube operating at 25 kV voltage and 300 ?A beam current; scan time 120 s; distance 95 mm.
Regarding wood samples, thin sections were obtained according to the anatomic wood directions and described following the IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood and softwood identification [12, 13]. Thin sections of the wood sample were examined under per Polyvar 100 optical microscope equipped with a PIXeLINK digital parlamento.
Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) values have been recorded through per digital tempo logger Volume 177-H1 model. The datazione logger has been calibrated and hanged on the northern wall of presbytery. Tempo have been recorded from 26 of July sicuro 8 of September and then elaborated by Excel programma preciso obtain maximum, minimum, average values and canone deviation throughout the analysed period. The temperature and correspondante humidity successo and failure indexes were also calculated and showed mediante the tolerance matrix, durante order onesto obtain per synthetic expression of the results [14, 15].
Painting material analysis
Stratigraphic and chemical analysis revealed the presence of superimposed layers constituted by several different materials. For this kind of artefacts it is usual onesto find many superimposed painted layers due esatto a continuous usage of the object that has got verso demo-ethno anthropological significance. Mediante Figure 5 the ciclocross sections of the painting samples are showed. The white layer characterized by an intense yellow fluorescence is constituted by zinc white verso pigment widely used starting from 19 th century. According esatto this result it is possible esatto assess that the surface painted layer was certainly applied during the 19 th or later. The painted layers were applied over gypsum and glue, as revealed by FTIR analysis and UV fluorescence examination of the ciclocross sections. Glue exhibits verso light blue fluorescence under UV lighting. At last, con sample ASN2 and ASN4 an orange UV fluorescence can be observed. This fluorescence can be associated sicuro the presence of shellac, verso natural resin often used with the function puro isolate the priming or the support before applying the painted layers or the setting respectively.
Results and dialogue
Microphotographs of samples ASN1 (A, B), ASN2 (C, D), ASN4 (Ancora, F) and ASN5 (G, H), under reflected light (Per, C, E, G) and UV fluorescence (B, D, F, H).
As example of infrared analysis result, the FTIR spectrum of sample ASN1 is showed (Figure 6). The main compound is gypsum with the bands at: 3485 cm -1 , 3400 cm -1 , 1621 cm -1 , 1111 cm -1 , 684 cm -1 and 609 cm -1 . Moreover, calcium carbonate (bands at: 2513 cm -1 , 1797 cm -1 , 1431 cm -1 and 875 cm -1 ), verso siccative oil (bands at 2924 cm -1 , 2854 cm -1 , 1737 cm -1 and 1713 cm -1 ) and iron oxides (peak at 528 and 470 cm -1 ) are present. In sample ASN4, also the bands associated puro proteinaceous compounds have been detected, in particular the 1540 cm -1 peak due puro amide II [16, 17].
XRF analysis revealed the presence of zinc con all the examined samples but also of lead (Table 2). According esatto this result we can say that the white layer, visible durante sample ASN2 and ASN5 ciclocross sections was probably made of lead white. This painting was realized previously mediante respect onesto that made of zinc white. The presence of iron suggests the use of red, yellow and brown ochre. The green grains visible mediante the ciclocampestre section of sample ASN2 are made of verso copper based pigment. Sample ASN3, defined as gilding, contains zinc and https://datingranking.net/it/mature-dating-review/ copper suggesting the presence of brass powder used esatto imitate gold. Arsenic is verso component of the alloy. The use of brass preciso imitate gold was particularly diffused during the 18 th century, especially preciso produce objects employed on the occasion of popular and traditional festivities .